Accounting – a process whereby the registers of the company’s financial services reflect business transactions related to loans and lending. What is special about these records? Which postings represent long-term liabilities and short-term loans and loans in accounting?
First, we will examine some theoretical points in accounting for the commitments involved. Before you think about how credit and loan accounting is implemented, you can examine the differences between them. These criteria can be identified with reference to the provisions of Russian civil law.
What is the difference between a loan and a loan?
Regarding the loan: in accordance with the agreement, one party acting as the lender transfers ownership of the money or other resources to another business unit – the borrower, and after a while the second party transfers ownership to the previous or equivalent Stand back.
Loan contracts can be signed by both organizations and individuals. This agreement must be in writing unless otherwise provided by law.
A party to a conventional loan agreement can be any citizen or organization. Operations of the corresponding type are not licensed and are generally not restricted. In the manner regulated by civil law, a loan can be obtained from the founder or a partner organization, for example.
In turn, a loan is a loan that can only be provided by the organization in the status of a financial institution, subject to a license from the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. Loans, in turn, are based not only on the norms of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation but also on other sources of financial law. However, they should only be provided on the basis of a written contract. Bank loans are generally considered urgent and involve interest payments.
An agreement between a financial institution and, in many cases, the borrower undertakes to provide an adequate loan with an asset, a guarantee or by entering into a special contract with an insurance company. So the basic difference between credit and loan is that the obligations of the first kind:
- result from the conclusion of a contract with a specialized financial institution with a license from the Central Bank of the Russian Federation,
- involve transferring the lender to the borrower in all cases of cash;
- arises from the conclusion of a written contract between the parties.
The contract between the lender and the borrower specifies all the basic conditions of the loan: the amount transferred from one side to the other, the scope and conditions for calculating the interest.
The subject of accounting for loan transactions in accounting
Now consider what objects can correlate accounting loans and loans in accounting. The most important are business transactions that result from the fulfillment of the contract by the company. As mentioned above, one company – the creditor or lender – transfers the property of the other to the borrower, the money, while the second company is obliged to repay the first amount, even if it is agreed to do so – including interest.
In some cases, the subject matter of the contract can be a specific material object – real estate or equipment, an intellectual product (e.g. software). In rare cases, the borrower is expected to return less than the contractually agreed amount.
This is usually possible if the contracting parties are the state’s central bank, which pursued a negative interest rate policy, and private financial institutions. In Russia, the key interest rate of the central bank is now quite high, so that loans that are granted between different market participants are almost always associated with interest payments.
Accounting of loans and loans in accounting implemented on special accounts 66 and 67. The first reflects the operations on short-term loans, the second – on long-term ones.
Accounting for credit transactions in accounting: regulatory framework
In accordance with the legal requirements, according to which loans and loans are shown in the accounting records, the amount of the company’s obligations – if it acts as a borrower – is shown in the accounting registers based on the contract content with the creditor. Information on loan repayment terms should also be disclosed in the reporting sources.
Loans and loans are divided into two types – short-term and long-term, and your account is held in the accounts listed above. Costs related to loans should be taken into account in the accounts separately from the amounts under the loan contract. These costs are shown in the booking vouchers for the period in which they were incurred. They should also be included equally in the structure of the organization’s other costs.
Use of special accounting accounts Amounts that correspond to the principal or interest accrued on long-term or short-term loans or credits are used to create accounting bookings using accounting accounts. Consider their peculiarities.